“Don Quixote”: meaning and analysis of the book by Miguel de Cervantes

“Don Quixote”: meaning and analysis of the book by Miguel de Cervantes Literature

The remarkable work of Cervantes called “Don Quixote” entered the world literature. The adventure novel easily and naturally reveals the theme of chivalry and heroism. In the work itself, with careful reading, hidden meanings are realized, therefore it is interesting to read it and highlight the most important points.

History and analysis of the book

“Don Quixote” is a literary work written by the author among the last creations. The first volume went on sale in 1605, and then ten years later the next part. The publication of the novel took place in the publishing house of Francisco de Robles. The book sold well in Europe and was exported to Latin America. In Barcelona, ​​the entire novel was published at once in two parts – this happened in 1617.

Sevantes, with the acquisition of experience, opened up the instructive ideology more sharply and more voluminously and reflected concern about the decline of society. Just this novel became a model of a complete and complete narrative about the life of the hero and knight Don Quixote. The meaning of the novel is a detailed description of an adventure story based on a combination of several genres, such as drama or comedy. This work immediately became popular and gained many fans who prefer to read about the adventures of heroes. In modern times, it arouses interest in a cautious and at the same time detailed idea of ​​the political picture of that time. Cervantes managed to reveal the deep meaning in many episodes, but this was done very carefully and delicately.

At the time of writing, the author observed the rules of non-disclosure of many issues that cannot be spoken about openly and directly. The uniqueness of the novel lies in the special genius of the composition with the author’s ability to perfectly hide the intended meanings and place more emphasis on adventure. It describes the struggle with the egregious problems of society, namely, with the feudal onslaught and the desire for profit. The protagonist lived at a time of great change, when the old world with a feudal way of life smoothly flowed into a new reality, overgrown with bourgeois novelties.

He realized how much a person who has at least a little power over his neighbor seeks to enrich himself at the expense of others and cannot refrain from many temptations. Cervantes is a humanist by nature, therefore he describes the life of ordinary people who do not lose willpower and good spirits. Therefore, many characters from poor peasants or harmless robbers are described in his novel. To know, for the author, was associated with laziness, unremarkableness and indifference. People from the lower classes, according to the author, lived a natural life, although somewhat embellished by him. Don Quixote also possesses this unique spirit of the common people. The bright character is similar to the author himself, attracting with the desire to make the world a better place and be useful in the public environment, but along with heroism and nobility, bad luck was also distressing, causing disappointment and regret.

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Features of the main character

In fact, the main character’s name is Alonso Kejano, and the knightly pseudonym complements a bright and interesting personality, showing courage and even recklessness in critical situations. Don Quixote is constantly striving for the ideal in everything, and the desire to change the world and build a humane society in it intensifies with every step taken on the path to victory over bourgeois influence. The brave hidalgo and knight sets goals and strives to become a defender of the oppressed, weak and offended, but over time he realizes how great the risk of harming himself is. If it were not for the excessive desire for an ideal, then a typical knight would have come out of the hero, who from time to time committed humane deeds. His chivalry is based only on a blind faith in the improvement of the world, therefore he is often accompanied by moments of disappointment.

The knight’s partner Sancho Panza agrees to be the accompanying squire, eager to cash in and give up his peasant fate. He is somewhat critical of the master, and considers his undertakings meaningless. The only thing that unites them is wisdom and following each other’s advice. A fanatical knight is motivated by platonic love for his muse, which causes spiritual awe, admiration and directs him to the path of disinterestedness and equality.

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A beautiful lady serves as an inspiration, and her beautiful name does not leave the head of a romantic in love. The noble lady Dulcinea of ​​Toboso is actually a peasant woman, Aldonsa Lorenzo, who has a beautiful appearance and good disposition. In his work, Cervantes perfectly conveyed the comic nature of many situations and the characteristics of the characters, delicately and successfully pointing out some aspects of social inequality.

The protagonist throughout his story comically and a little naively demonstrates desperate attempts to change the situation for the better and make adjustments that sometimes do not work or are not fully manifested. All the efforts of the hero in some cases end not only in their own suffering, but disapproval of those who can do without any help. But the stupid heroism of Don Quixote does not bring complete disappointment, and the establishment of moral, moral and political standards will become the constant goal of his mission.

deep meaning

The action of events takes place in a significant period of history, when feudalism and modern times meet. The author manages to vividly express dissatisfaction with the unjust structure of the feudal system, to prove the stupidity of prejudice and the destructiveness of an inhumane approach to the lower class, which has experienced unbearable oppression for many generations. Cervantes put himself into the character of the protagonist, becoming his eyes and making it clear how dependent the common people are on the destructive sinfulness and tyranny of the masters. Don Quixote deeply respects the traditions of the people, the main aspects of the activities and life of the peasants. The humanistic worldview is given a special role when writing a novel, and this phenomenon has only begun to influence the minds of people living in Spain.


The problematic of the novel lies in the difference between the ideal and the material world, which has filled absolutely everything related to activity and development. In the soul and thoughts of the hero, the foundation of idealism is laid with established standards in undertakings and goals. Another problem lies in the social structure, where injustice and lawlessness reign. A rather voluminous work consists of two large volumes, which describes the structure of society at the beginning of the 17th century. On the pages you can meet many characters, consisting of different classes and engaged in various activities.

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Cervantes managed to broadly and in detail cover the problem of the dependence of the lower class on the feudal system. The main meaning of the work is to reflect the incorrectness of the way of life under feudalism. The old world, with its inherent poverty and lack of rights, appears as an unsuccessful setting of life aspects, consisting of too absurd conventions of chivalry and also religious prejudices. In the work, many questions touch upon the philosophical foundations of being and resonate with political views.

Original beginning and sad end of the story

The wanderings of Don Quixote are replete with many adventures that cause laughter and bewilderment. The eccentric will have to show himself as a brave hero who finds himself in comical and sometimes dangerous situations. The knight-errant decides to leave the village, puts on his knight’s armor and sets out on his horse Rossiante on an adventure. A slightly crazy Don Quixote will make the reader laugh with a ridiculous idea of ​​​​the world, for example, windmills are associated with giants, and inns are mistaken for luxurious castles. Sometimes a hero sees danger where there is no reason to worry and use his knightly gift. At the end of the novel, the protagonist returns to his native land and tries to come to terms with defeat in battle. Before his death, it is important for him to free himself from the burden of chivalry and admit his mistakes.

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